AKA - Chlorine By-products
Note: Unlike Fluoride, which enters the body only through ingestion, Chlorine and Chlorination by-products, aka, Trihalomethanes (THM's) enter the body by ingestion, and through skin absorption, and respiration during baths and showers making accumulative levels extremely difficult to measure.
Re: Government of Canada
Health Canada has established a guideline for THMs of 0.1 milligrams per litre. The cancer risk at this level over a lifetime is considered extremely low. The guidelines for THMs and other chlorination by-products are currently under review by a task group whose work is coordinated by Health Canada.
Re: Other Credible Studies
. 2004 Mar;15(2):179-86. doi: 10.1097/01.ede.0000112209.47765.d9.
Trihalomethanes in public water supplies and risk of stillbirth
PMID: 15127910 DOI: 10.1097/01.ede.0000112209.47765.d9
Background: The chlorine used to disinfect public drinking water supplies reacts with naturally occurring organic matter to form a number of chemical byproducts. Recent studies have implicated exposure to chlorination byproducts in drinking water, trihalomethanes (THMs), in particular, with intrauterine death.
Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study in Nova Scotia and Eastern Ontario, Canada, to examine the effect of exposure to THMs on stillbirth risk. Cases were women who had a stillborn infant, and controls were a random sample of women with live births. Subjects were interviewed, and women with a public water source provided a residential water sample. Risks were examined according to residential THM level in tap water and to a total exposure metric incorporating tap water ingestion, showering, and bathing.
Results: We enrolled 112 stillbirth cases and 398 live birth controls. Women with a residential total THM level of 80 or more microg/L had twice the risk of a stillbirth compared with women with no exposure to THMs (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-4.4). The highest quintile of total THM exposure using the total exposure metric was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.4 (95% CI = 1.2-4.6) compared with women not exposed to THMs. Similar results were seen for specific THM compounds. A monotonic dose-response relationship was not seen.
Conclusions: Our results provide evidence for an increased risk of stillbirth associated with exposure to chlorination byproducts through ingestion and showering and bathing, although there was not a clear dose-response relationship.
King WD, Dodds L, Allen AC.
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Sep;108(9):883-6. doi: 10.1289/ehp.00108883.
PMID: 11017894 Free PMC article.
Villanueva CM, Gracia-Lavedan E, Bosetti C, Righi E, Molina AJ, Martín V, Boldo E, Aragonés N, Perez-Gomez B, Pollan M, Acebo IG, Altzibar JM, Zabala AJ, Ardanaz E, Peiró R, Tardón A, Chirlaque MD, Tavani A, Polesel J, Serraino D, Pisa F, Castaño-Vinyals G, Espinosa A, Espejo-Herrera N, Palau M, Moreno V, La Vecchia C, Aggazzotti G, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Kogevinas M.
Environ Health Perspect. 2017 Jan;125(1):56-65. doi: 10.1289/EHP155. Epub 2016 Jul 6.
PMID: 27383820 Free PMC article.
King WD, Dodds L, Armson BA, Allen AC, Fell DB, Nimrod C.
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2004 Nov;14(6):466-72. doi: 10.1038/sj.jea.7500345.
Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Toledano MB, Eaton NE, Fawell J, Elliott P.
Occup Environ Med. 2000 Feb;57(2):73-85. doi: 10.1136/oem.57.2.73.
PMID: 10711274 Free PMC article. Review.
Gopal K, Tripathy SS, Bersillon JL, Dubey SP.
J Hazard Mater. 2007 Feb 9;140(1-2):1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.10.063. Epub 2006 Oct 27.
PMID: 17129670 Review.
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